Qualitative Research

1. What Is Qualitative Research?

When planning a research project, a good starting point is to think about your own position regarding how you see the world. What do you think can be studied? Is there a real objective world out there that we can examine as researchers? Or can we only examine constructions of something that might be real, true and objective? Or is everything a construction? If you have never thought about this and you want to conduct scientific research, a recommendation is to read the seminal works by Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend: The structure of scientific revolutions (Kuhn, (1962 /1996) and Against Methods (Feyerabend, 1975/2010).
Kuhn shows that many of the great scientific discoveries were made by chance rather than by applying a rigid methodology. According to Kuhn, scientific knowledge is only true as long as we haven’t found a better truth. Thus, we can never be sure whether our knowledge is in fact objective or whether it is limited to what we are able to see at the moment. The limitations may be of technical or cognitive nature. Kuhn provides examples where scientists have not recognized obvious facts just because they did not believe that they could exist. When you are interested to find out more about the way science works, I recommend reading the book yourself. For all readers with German language proficiency, I suggest the book by Wallach (2009) on the philosophical basic of science. Feyerabend is another must-read if you are interested in the philosophy of science. He became known as revolutionary scientists and most readers are likely to have heard about his famous methodological conclusion: “The only principle that does not inhibit progress is: anything goes.” He called for methodological pluralism. A famous quote is: “Knowledge is not a series of self-consistent theories that converges towards an ideal view; it is rather an ever increasing ocean of mutually incompatible (and perhaps even incommensurable) alternatives, each single theory, each fairy tale, each myth.”

The next questions to consider is:

What is qualitative research and how can we define it?

In the handbook of qualitative research Denzin and Lincoln (2005) describe qualitative research as involving “… an interpretive naturalistic approach to the world. This means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of or interpret phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them.” (p. 3)

When applying qualitative research methods, the emphasis is put on the natural setting and the pointsof views of the research participants. Additionally, special consideration is given to the researcher as person. He or she is not the independent observer in a white coat – a picture that is often drawn when natural scientists are depicted. Rather, in qualitative research self-reflection about one’s own attitude and position and role in society is vital. As Denzin and Lincoln write: “Behind all research stands the biography of the gendered researcher, who speaks from a particular class, racial, cultural and ethnic community perspective“ (p. 21). We can only see what our class, culture, race, gender or other factors allows us to recognize. There are plenty of examples for this in our everyday life. For instance, in our university department the cables to connect a laptop to the beamer are “always” black. One day I needed a longer cable and asked the secretary whether the institute had such a cable. I had already looked through the cupboard where the cables are stored but did not find anything. The secretary then went together with me to the same cupboard and gave me a long transparent cable. I had looked for something black and therefore did not see it.

The same happens when you conduct research and simply do not consider that the thing you look for might be red or blue or even patterned instead of black and white. There are numerous famous examples where major discoveries were delayed or where observations were ignored because they did not fit prevalent theory and thus inhibiting progress and knowledge generation. When you are interested, take a look at the already mentioned books by Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend.

I am not sure whether you, the reader, already have a clear position about how you see the world that you want to examine in your research project. But you should grasp by now that qualitative research is not desk research, we go out into whatever we consider the real world, observe and talk to people, interact with them aiming to understand what is important to them and how they perceive the world. Self-reflection is our constant companion and from the very beginning to the end of a research project it is important to consider who we are, how we are perceived by others and as what kind of person we enter the field. This also influences the type of research question we select.

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2. Looking For A Research Idea

In this section, I draw on the writings by John Dewey (2000 (1938]), another influential author. In his book “Logic, the Theory of Inquiry” he very clearly outlines the process of research. Very reassuring for beginning researchers, he states that research follows a uniform structure, which applies to our everyday life as well as to science. In other words, there are familiar elements in conducting research and we can draw on knowledge that we already have gained in our everyday life. Dewey describes the research process as follows:


“The antecedent condition of inquiry that gets it all started is an indeterminate or uncertain situation. It is a situation that makes us fell disturbed, troubled, confused; it is ambiguous and contradictory. This leads us to formulate a problem statement and to determine a way to solve this problem. Dewey puts it very simply: “We inquire when we question; and we inquire when we seek for whatever will provide an answer to a question asked.” (p. 105).


In consequence, research is and should be based on real life problems and should not contain fictitious elements. Often questions are derived from the personal biography or social context of the researcher. The connection between social context and personal biography is for example obvious in the following student projects I supervised in the past:

  • being a boxing trainer himself, a student examined the function of boxing as a way to help adolescents with a criminal record to deal with aggression
  • having provided voluntary work for elderly, a group looked at personal benefits and down sights of the honorary office
  • the soccer world championship took place in Germany in 2006 and within this context some students looked at the new German nationalism, others at public viewing events as a new form of getting together
  • based on the personal biography of a student who served as soldier in the KFOR-Mission in Kosovo, he and his grouped studied the individual consequences and effects on soldiers who take part in military operations in foreign countries

After having come across an uncertain situation, the next step is to clearly identify and formulate the problem. This is very important as the problem statement is like a lens through which you look at reality, it reduces the complexity of reality and structures the research field. Further, you derive more detailed research questions and hypothesis from it and this can only work successfully when the point of departure, the stated problem, is comprehensible and unambiguously spelled out. See also the chapter on research design for computer-assisted analysis in di Gregorio and Davidson (2008).

3. Doing Your Homework: The Literature Review

Once you have an idea what you want to study, you should spend a number of hours or days in the library. Maybe someone else has already solved your problem or there are existing studies that have looked at the same or similar issues you are interested in. This does not mean that you have to start all over again and think of a new topic for your research project. Maybe other researchers before you have looked at different aspects, or maybe the study was conducted a long time ago and repeating it would be fruitful. Or it can be the case that in previous studies a quantitative instead of qualitative approach was chosen; you could add to it by approaching the topic from a qualitative perspective. In the main, it is essential to know on what kind of information you can build on and how you can contextualize your study. If you cannot find anything in your first search for literature, look for comparable topics. Others may not have exactly researched the issue you are interested in but something very similar, e.g. not boxing as prevention strategy for adolescents with a criminal record, but mountain biking, free climbing or karate. Look a bit to the left and to the right of the topic you are interested in when searching for key words in library catalogues.

Another issue is type of literature. Often my students come back from a first visit to the library and tell me that they found a few books but two out of the three are loaned for the next three months. Books are okay to look at, but for other reasons than finding up-to-date research results. The first places where new findings are disseminated are at conferences. The resulting papers are often published in conference proceedings. The next steps are journal publication, followed by chapters in edited volumes and possibly single authored books.

Look at books for classical research studies, for gaining an overview of the research field, the major theoretical frameworks used and for definition of established terms. Words used in everyday language like stress, motivation, violence, emotions, employment, unemployment, nationalism and so on, may have specific meanings in a scientific context different from everyday practice. In order to formulate good research questions, you need to define your major terms. Rather than inventing your own definitions, it is better to look at the various alternatives offered in the existing literature. Then make an informed decision.

After a while, you will know the major journals in your field and it becomes much easier to find relevant articles. Besides, the authors of such articles have done a literature search themselves. Once you have found a handful of good articles, begin to read.  Most likely, you find interesting articles referenced in these papers and thus the bibliographies put together by other authors are another good source when looking for relevant literature.

You may also use ATLAS.ti for your literature review. For further information see for example: https://atlastiblog.wordpress.com/tag/literature-reviews/

4. Formulating A Qualitative Research Question

With this background knowledge you are ready to formulate your own research question(s). Qualitative research questions are the why and wherefores rather than asking “how often” something occurs and how widespread it is.
In qualitative research we ask things like: who is doing or involved in something, how is it done, for what kind of reasons? What is done, what kind of steps are followed in what kind of order, what kind of strategies are used, what are the consequences of doing or not doing something, why is this like this, wherefore is it done and why?

Below you find a selection of qualitative research question based on my teaching practice that present good and not so good examples:

Example 1: How do elderly people living in a retirement home perceive their situation and how are they dealing with it?
This question can be approached using a qualitative approach as you can talk with the elderly about it. A questionnaire is not appropriate as you can probably not come up with all the possible answer categories.

Example 2: How does the image of the ideal man influences the male population between the ages 20 and 35?
The question, as formulated above, is probably difficult to answer in either a single qualitative or quantitative study. One first needs to know what the image of the ideal man is. Maybe there is not just one but a number of ideal images. This question could be followed up on in a qualitative study. For finding out how this influences a particular segment of the male population, however, a representative survey would need to be conducted.

Example 3: What are the special challenges that students who are born in Germany and have an immigrant background face?
Generally, this question can serve as basis for a qualitative study but it needs some further clarification. In Germany, we have immigrants from lots of different backgrounds: people from Turkey, Russia and the successor states of the former Soviet Union, Poland, successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Italy, Greece, etc. Some are Muslims, some are Catholics and others are atheists. And they came for different reasons: work, war, breakdown of communism or having German ancestors. Hence, it is to expect that each group faces different challenges. It is thinkable to design a study where all groups are included, but this would be very large and extensive qualitative research project. The advice here is to narrow the question to one particular group of immigrants.

Example 4: What kind of emotions and attitudes motivate individuals to take part in mass events?
This question also requires some modification. On the one hand it needs to be more specific with regard to the kind of individuals and the kind of mass event(s) to be studied. On the other hand, it might be worthwhile to extend the question by including individual background, life situation and the like. The focus on emotions and attitudes most probably is too narrow.

Example 5: Did the role models of marriage and motherhood as perceived by 20 to 30 years old women in our society change; and if so, how did they change?
As in example 2, results from a qualitative study cannot be used to generalize to larger portions of the society, i.e. all 20 to 30 years old women from Germany think like that or perceive the role model to be such and such. Thus, one could examine what kind of role models are perceived by a specific group of 20 to 30 years old women and compare those with previous role models described in the literature.

In summary, a qualitative research question mainly focuses on “W” questions; distributions across or within large populations are of lesser importance and often cannot be examined due to the nature of qualitative research itself. The question should not be too broad, but also not too narrow. And you should be able to examine it at all. A prerequisite is that you can gain access to the field. You may have formulated a perfect qualitative research question, if putting it into practice requires talking to all ministers in your country and you do not have the right connections, your project cannot be realized. Before you continue to invest a lot of time and effort in a research idea, check out whether you can find participants. Talking to pupils in schools often takes a long process of getting permissions from the school board; you cannot just go to a schoolyard and talk to kids there. Military institutions are another case, where you need to adhere to specific procedures to be allowed access. Recently some students wanted to interview people that have converted to Islam, but were not able to find individuals that were willing to participate. Others were interested in people that are addicted to sports; they ended up changing their topic as they did not manage to get contact with such persons. In qualitative research terms, they could not access the field. Thus, there are not only institutional hurdles to overcome. It is probably easiest to find participants for your research, when the research question is based on your personal background or related to your social context. In other cases it is not impossible, but more difficult.

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Denzin, Norman K. and Lincoln, Yvonne S. (2000, 2ed ed.). Handbook of Qualitative Research. London: Sage.

Feyerabend.Against methods.(2010). Verso Books, 4th edition.First published in 1975.

Kuhn, Thomas (1996). The structure of scientific revolution.University of Chicago Press.First published in 1962.

Wallach, Harald (2009, 2ed ed). Psychologie – Wissenschaftstheorie, philosophische Grundlagen und Geschichte: Ein Lehrbuch. Kohlhammer.

Dewey, John (2002 [1938]]. Logik. Die Theorie der Forschung. Frankfurt a.M. / Logic. The TheoryofInquiry (1938). Open Source: https://archive.org/details/JohnDeweyLogicTheTheoryOfInquiry

di Gregorio, Silvana& Judith Davidson, Judith (2008). Qualitative Research Design for Software Users. Milton Keynes: Open University Press

Flick, Uwe (2006, 3rd ed / 2007). An Introduction to Qualitative Research.London: Sage. Chapter 9. / Marschall, Chaterine&Rossmann, Gretchen B. (1995). Designing qualitative research. London: Sage. Chapter 2. / Silvermann, David (2000). Doing Qualitative Research: A Practical Handbook. London: Sage. Chapter 5.