The Ultimate Guide to Qualitative Research - Part 1: The Basics

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Learn the essential building blocks of qualitative research: key definitions, research design, data collection methods, and important ethical considerations.
Jörg Hecker
Neringa Kalpokas
Director, Training & Partnership Development
  1. Introduction and overview
  2. What is qualitative research?
  3. What is qualitative data?
  4. Examples of qualitative data
  5. Qualitative vs. quantitative research
  6. Mixed methods
  7. Qualitative research preparation
  8. Theoretical perspective
  9. Theoretical framework
  10. Literature reviews
  11. Research question
  12. Conceptual framework
  13. Conceptual vs. theoretical framework
  14. Data collection
  15. Qualitative research methods
  16. Interviews
  17. Focus groups
  18. Observational research
  19. Case studies
  20. Surveys
  21. Ethnographical research
  22. Ethical considerations
  23. Confidentiality and privacy
  24. Bias
  25. Power dynamics
  26. Reflexivity
    1. Overview
    2. Basic overview of reflexivity
    3. Types of reflexivity
    4. Techniques for practicing reflexivity


When conducting qualitative research that involves humans as a source of data and a tool for data analysis, researchers should be particularly mindful of subjectivity in research. Moreover, your audience expects you to demonstrate this mindfulness when you communicate rigorous qualitative research. As a result, reflexivity is an essential component in qualitative methods. Reflexive practices are necessary to ensure that the data and findings are trustworthy, both from the qualitative researcher's standpoint and the audience’s standpoint.

Reflexivity ensures that data collection and data analysis considers individual differences.

Basic overview of reflexivity

Reflexivity, in the context of qualitative research, refers to the process of continually reflecting upon the researcher's role, biases, values, and relationships, both with the research subject and the data collection and analysis processes. This concept is rooted in the recognition that researchers are not passive, objective observers.

Instead, they actively construct knowledge and are intrinsically linked to the research they conduct. This is, of course, also true in the physical and natural sciences and any discipline that employs quantitative research. In a way, understanding concepts such as gravity and speed can also be subjectively influenced by people's knowledge and perspectives of the world around them. That said, reflexivity is a key research practice in the social sciences and in any discipline that employs qualitative research methods, particularly when such disciplines deal with concepts and theories of social interaction, interpersonal relations, and cultural practices.

What is reflexivity?

Reflexivity is the practice of self-awareness in research as researchers critically examine their influence on the construction and interpretation of knowledge. The researcher's social background, assumptions, positioning, and behavior can all shape various stages of research, including data collection, analysis, and interpretation. Reflexivity, therefore, asks researchers to become aware of and articulate their perspectives, assumptions, and influences on the research. Reflexivity involves two primary components: personal reflexivity and epistemological reflexivity. Personal reflexivity relates to how the researcher's values, experiences, interests, beliefs, political commitments, wider aims in life, and social identities have shaped the research. It includes reflection on how the research may affect and transform the researcher over time. Epistemological reflexivity, on the other hand, refers to how aspects of the research process and methodology, such as the research question, data collection instruments, or underlying epistemological assumptions, might be shaping the data and analysis that is produced.

Reflexivity is critical in qualitative research for several reasons. Firstly, it enhances the credibility and accountability of the research. By being transparent about their views and assumptions, researchers can allow the audience to understand their perspective and the potential influence it may have on the research findings. Secondly, reflexivity is a tool for ethical research conduct. It ensures that researchers are cognizant of their power dynamics with participants and mindful of their responsibility and potential influence. This reflection can help prevent exploitation or harm and promote respect for participants' rights and dignity. Lastly, reflexivity can enrich research processes. It encourages researchers to question their own assumptions, leading to more thoughtful, nuanced, and critical interpretations of the data. This self-reflection can also lead to new research questions, improving the depth and breadth of the inquiry.

What is an example of reflexivity?

For an example of reflexivity in qualitative research, let’s consider a sociologist studying poverty in their own community. Their personal experiences and preconceptions about the community can impact how they approach the research, the questions they ask, and how they interpret the data. In any qualitative research project, the researcher often acknowledges their personal connections and beliefs about the community. They could recognize that their experiences might lead them to overemphasize certain aspects and overlook others. During data collection, they might reflect on how their presence and identity impact the participants' responses.

When analyzing the data, researchers could question their interpretations and challenge their assumptions. In management research, for example, does the researcher have a solid grasp of the relationships in the workplace, given the power dynamics present between individuals? In mental health research, do the researcher's interactions with clinical patients involve the necessary care and respect while collecting data? A researcher might also consider how their position of privilege as a researcher affects their relationship with the participants and the research process. Finally, in presenting their findings, they might discuss these reflexive considerations, providing the audience with a clearer understanding of the context and interpretation of the data. In this way, reflexivity becomes a continuous, integral part of the research process, enhancing its credibility, ethical conduct, and depth of inquiry.

Types of reflexivity

Reflexivity in qualitative research is multifaceted and can be categorized into two primary types: personal reflexivity and epistemological reflexivity. Each of these types plays a unique role in research and offers different lenses through which the researcher can examine their influence on the research.

Personal reflexivity or researcher reflexivity involves the researcher reflecting on the ways in which their personal characteristics, experiences, values, and beliefs shape the research and outcomes. Qualitative researchers incorporate their personal histories, identities, and worldviews into the research. This approach can subtly or overtly influence every aspect of the study, from the selection of the topic to the formulation of research questions, to the interpretation of findings. For instance, a researcher's cultural background can influence their understanding and interpretation of participants' experiences. A researcher who has experienced poverty might bring unique insights to a study on socioeconomic inequalities but may also hold certain biases or preconceptions that must be acknowledged. Personal reflexivity also involves reflecting on the researcher's emotions and how they might affect the research. It is not uncommon for researchers to experience a range of emotions during the research process. These emotions can impact how the researcher interacts with participants, collects and interprets data, and presents the research findings.

Epistemological reflexivity, on the other hand, involves reflecting on the assumptions and knowledge claims made in the research. This type of reflexivity requires researchers to question the paradigms, methods, and theories they adopt in their research and to consider how these choices shape the knowledge they construct. For example, a researcher conducting a phenomenological study might reflect on their assumption that individuals' lived experiences can provide valuable insights into a phenomenon. They might also consider how their choice of phenomenology influences the research, such as how they collect and interpret data and how they present their findings. Epistemological reflexivity also involves considering the limitations of the research. Every research approach has its strengths and weaknesses, and acknowledging these can enhance the credibility of the research. For instance, a researcher might reflect on how their choice of a particular method could have led to the omission of certain perspectives or the overemphasis of others.

Techniques for practicing reflexivity

Practicing reflexivity requires intentional and systematic efforts from the researcher. Here, we'll explore three techniques that can help qualitative researchers carefully engage in reflexive research: keeping a reflexive journal, conducting peer debriefing, and engaging in critical self-reflection.

One effective way to practice reflexivity is by keeping a reflexive journal. This is a personal record where the researcher can document thoughts, feelings, observations, and reflections throughout the research process. The journal can include reflections on interactions with research participants, decisions about data collection and analysis, interpretations of findings, and the researcher's emotional reactions to the research. For example, after each interview, the researcher might write about how they felt during the interaction, how they think their behavior or identity might have influenced the participant's responses, and any assumptions or biases they noticed in their questions or reactions. They might also reflect on how their interpretations of the data are influenced by their personal experiences or theoretical leanings. A reflexive journal not only facilitates reflexivity during the research process but also serves as a valuable record that can be shared with the research audience, enhancing the transparency and credibility of the research.

Peer debriefing is another useful technique for practicing reflexivity. This involves conducting research dissemination with colleagues or mentors who can provide an outside perspective. These discussions can help reflexive researchers identify potential biases, challenge their interpretations, and consider alternative explanations. For instance, a researcher might share their interview transcripts and preliminary analyses with a colleague. The colleague might question the researcher's interpretations, point out potential biases in the coding process, or suggest additional themes that the researcher might have overlooked. These conversations can enhance the rigor and credibility of the research by ensuring that the findings are grounded in the data and relevant literature rather than solely being based on the researcher's personal perspective.

Finally, engaging in critical self-reflection is a fundamental aspect of reflexivity. This involves the researcher critically examining their assumptions, values, and worldviews. The researcher then considers how these elements might influence the research. Critical self-reflection can take many forms. For example, the researcher might reflect on their personal experiences and how these might relate to the research topic. They might consider their positionality concerning the participants and reflect on the power dynamics that this might entail. They might also question their theoretical assumptions and consider how these shape their research questions, methods, and interpretations. Self-reflection requires openness, honesty, and courage. It's not always comfortable to confront one's biases or to acknowledge the limitations of one's research. However, this discomfort is a crucial part of reflexivity, leading to greater self-awareness, ethical conduct, and research rigor. In summary, keeping a reflexive journal, conducting peer debriefing, and engaging in critical self-reflection are three practical techniques for practicing reflexivity. These techniques can help researchers self-consciously critique themselves and their methods so they can be more mindful of their role and influence in the research process, enhancing the credibility, ethics, and depth of their qualitative inquiry.